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1.  By what means can collective bargaining agreements be enforced? Discuss the five principles that govern the arbitration of grievances under collective bargaining. What measures are utilized in non-union environments? (350 words)

2.  How does an arbitrator determine that a company had just cause for taking a disciplinary action? What remedy might an arbitrator choose if a company did not have just cause? Will the process be different if the organization does not have union representation? If so how? (350 words)