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A 38-year-old African-American woman was admitted for arthroscopic knee surgery. Her hematocrit was 25%, blood pressure was 140/94 mm Hg, and pulse was 112 beats/minute. She had a history of joint and bone pain, jaundice, and abdominal pain.
Due to the presenting symptoms (joint and bone pain, abdominal pain, and jaundice) a diagnosis of Sickle Cell Disease was considered.

1. Provide a brief discussion of the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease and discuss the clinical manifestations and the etiology associated with each manifestation of this disease.

A minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. A minimum of 2 references are required