Discussion Board Forum InstructionsYou will reply to 2 classmates’ threads. Each reply must be at least 250 words. The replies to classmates’ threads will contain citations. The individual student, with no group postings, will complete postings. Outside research should be used to answer the questions and should be properly cited using current APA formatting. Responding to a classmate’s post requires both the addition of new ideas and analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon your analysis in order to move the conversation forward. Thus, the response post is a rigorous assignment that requires you to build upon threads to develop deeper and more thorough discussion of the ideas introduced in the thread. As such, reply posts are merely affirm, restate or unprofessional quarrel with the previous post(s) and fail to make a valuable substantive contribution to the discussion will receive appropriate point deductions. Consider replies to be formal communications on the same level as those you would conduct with employers, clients, or colleagues in the professional, political, or academic world. As such, they must be free of grammatical errors, must be properly formatted in current APA style, and must consist of well-reasoned, contemplative, and substantive posts and replies, rather than mere ipse dixit. The replies must be adequately supported by citations of the sources or support for your ideas as well as any quoted materials. Everything you write—every paper, post, and email—creates or reinforces an impression of you. Begin to cultivate the communication skills of the statesman and stateswoman—the ability to logically and persuasively speak the truth with compassion and respect. Each response post must include new research and analysis and must build upon the ideas communicated in the original post. Thus, they must go beyond merely restating and affirming what a classmate has said and instead bring in more depth, research and analysis. Accordingly, each response post must include citations from the required reading and presentations. Responding to a classmate’s thread requires both the addition of new ideas and analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon by your analysis in order to move the conversation forward. Thus, the reply is a rigorous assignment that requires you to build upon the thread to develop deeper and more thorough discussion of the ideas introduced. As such, replies that merely affirm, restate or unprofessionally quarrel with the previous thread(s) and fail to make a valuable, substantive contribution to the discussion will receive appropriate point deductions.Post #1: LittletonTop of FormGovernment ReformYes, it is not time to reform the federal civil service so that it resembles the private sector. The U.S. Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (CSRA) followed this model by abolishing the Civil Service Commission and establishing in its place the Office of Personnel Management whose director reports to the president, and the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB), as a watchdog function, which is responsible for state and local governments, civil service commissions personnel policymaking, and administrative responsibilities that continue to operate in some jurisdictions, but now personnel director reports directly to the governor in over half of the states and the commissions were either abolished or limited to advisory and investigatory roles (as cited in Nigro, Nigro, Kellough, 2014, p. 23-24).Public managers leadership philosophy should be defined by what you value, and how you act. Formally articulating a public managers leadership philosophy will let others know what to expect from you as their leader. As you may know, there are many leadership philosophies in practice today. It is important to note that not every philosophy will be loved by every group or organization. An abundance of newly learned abilities needs to be implemented to uphold creative stationery bound among greatness. The need for reform in civil service and contract workforce uncovers several barriers organizations face when trying to implement challenging approaches, including a lack of organizational support, a lack of procedures, a lack of technical expertise to implement and interpret outputs, and a lack of transparency.The American public can be confident of the fairness and integrity of a civil service that uses human resources practices typical of the private sector, because “reform aligns personnel practices with the day-to-day needs of the public managers, improving the performance of public employees and makes bureaucracy more responsive to executive leadership” (as cited in Nigro, Nigro, Kellough, 2014, p. 275). Human Resources labor-management relations have a direct effect on the civil service and contract workforce by way of provisions, rights and duties of agencies and labor organizations, grievances and reviews, as well as administrative of other provisions. A general provision affects employee rights that deal with federal labor authorities, management, and power within duties of authority. Human resources practices will reveal a constant need for revision of standards and contracts.By focusing on overcoming barriers in the civil service and contract workforce through training employees will adopt the process and procedures for risk management, and regularly communicating with one another. Determining on a full commitment to these goals, the civil service and contract workforce will be capable of promoting extensive characteristics for motivational skills. Learning to appreciate the practices of committing strategies and continuing to work towards a goal that will compel the civil service and contract workforce to overcome obstacles that will invariably come their way. The desperation involved with any goal setting commitment will, in turn, reflect the civil service and contract workforce overall strengths to succeed. This includes ethics, character, and a rigid perceptive on peer management, one of the most unevaluated forms of relationships on the job. To form figuratively as a symbol of firmness, strength, and resistance in the workplace, there is a need to create a mission to build a peaceful mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship and solidarity to supports the effort in the civil service and contract workforce for transformational ideas.Biblical PerspectiveWhen the staff sign their performance target, I tell them that as they go about performing their duties, they should know that their work will be gauged based on the targets set. The book of Corinthians gives an example where Paul tells the believers that whatever they do should be to the glory of God.” …so, whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.” (1Corinthians 10:31) (as cited in Sifunda-Evelia, 2017, p. 36).ReferencesNigro, L., Nigro, F., and Kellough, J. (2014). The new public personnel administration. 7th. Independence, Kentucky. Cengage. ISBN: 97811337324284.Sifunda-Evelia, M. (2017). Human resource management practices: A biblical perspective. Singapore: Partridge. ISBN: 9781543742282.The Holy Bible 1Corinthians 10:31Post #2: VollbergPrivatization in Public ServicesPrivatization in Public ServicesSince the inception of public administration, reform has been constant and inevitable. I do think that public administration reform should take place so that federal civil service closely mimics the private sector. The guidance on how public administration should be ran publicly or with a mix of private sectors is not clear in the constitution. “the constitution enumerates many of the broad functions that are to be carried out by the federal government. However, the Constitution does not enumerate which of the tasks required to carry out these broad functions must be performed by governmental employees and which may be performed by private persons.” (Kosar, 2006, p. 30) Civil service should incorporate contract workforce and resemble the private sector to lower costs and obtain better results. “an example is using the free market approach empathizing privatization and contracting out of public services will yield better results and lower costs that will direct provision by public agencies.” (Nigro & Kellough, 2012, p. 18) The American public can be confident in the fairness and integrity of human resource practices that mimics the private sector due to the greater efficiency and more importantly responsiveness that comes with it. “the idea that deregulation, limiting or eliminating barging rights, privatization, and abolishing tenure will lead to greater efficiency and responsiveness by public employees is needed.” (Nigro & Kellough, 2012, p. 36) The domino effect of privatization in public services will allow for greater responsiveness by public employees and will lead to transparency and accountability, which will improve the integrity and fairness perceived by the public. Fairness can also be viewed as people being allowed to be treated as resources instead of being used. “this requires that individuals be treated as resources and not just factors of production.” (The American Public Service Presentation.) This increased fairness is based on the federal government being removed in one or more steps in a provision of a good or service and provides accountability. “the aforementioned concepts emphasize productivity, marketization, service orientation, decentralization, improved capacity to devise and track policy and accountability for results.” (Battaglio Jr. & Condrey, 2006, p. 118) With the increase of accountability and transparency, incorporating the private sector in public services will increase preparedness and compliment how fairness and integrity are perceived. Being prepared allow for better communication and management, which can attribute to better products and services provided to the public. “the gospel of Luke emphasizes the importance of being prepared and steadfast at all times. “but stay awake at all times, praying that you may have the strength to escape all these things that are going to take place and to stand before the Son of Man” Luke 21:36) “(Sifuna, 2017, p. 60-65) “The prudent sees danger and hides himself, but the simple go on and suffer for it.” – Proverbs 22: 3 Public administration reform is inevitable, and the incorporation of the private sector could be beneficial to the perceived integrity and fairness of public services and should closely mimic it. Closely mimicking the private sector will allow for lower costs and better results along with the removal of the federal government in provision of products or services.ReferencesBattaglio, R., & Condrey, S. (2006). Civil Service Reform: Examining State and Local Government Cases.Kosar, K. (2006). Privatization and the Federal Government: An Introduction.Liberty University. (n.d.). The American Public Service Presentation.Nigro, L. G., Nigro, F. A., & Kellough, J. E. (2012). The new public personnel administration. Cengage Learning.Sifuna-Evelia, M. (2017). Human resource management practices: A biblical perspective. Partridge Publishing Singapore.