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DQ 1

1) J. M     Re: Topic 3 DQ 1

We all have our own reactions to stress and ways to cope with the stress that impacts the stressors in our lives.  Stress is defined as the worry or strain caused by a difficult situation or environment. Stress involves three components: external, internal, and the interaction between the two. External components include personal, social, work, and the environment. Losing a loved one can cause lowered immune system functioning. Health issues and accidents are associated with stress at work. Stressors are a physical or psychological stimulus brought about by a challenging situation or circumstance. Strain is the response we have from stressors. Stress can attribute to many health issues from small problems like irritability and food cravings to panic attacks and cardiovascular disease (2018). Internal components of stress involve neurological and physiological reactions to stress. Those who go through long periods of stress go through three phases, including, alarm reaction, stage of resistanc,e and exhaustion. If the exhaustion stage occurs for prolonged periods, it had harms internal organs, leaving them susceptible to disease. Thirdly, the interaction between external and internal components involves people’s cognitive processes. Our own views of a situation determine if it is stressful for us or not. The way we view stress determines our coping mechanisms and how well we deal with stress. Stress affects our thoughts, behaviors, and overall health. 


UKEssays. (November 2018). Biopsychosocial model approach to understanding stress. Retrieved from

2)    T.A    Re: Topic 3 DQ 1


According to our textbook, written by Sarafino & Smith, the biopsychosocial model of stress involves three components (2017). The first component is external, then an internal component, followed by the interaction between the prior noted components. When we examine the biological factor of stress, we are looking at genetically predisposed factors; stress inheritance. This calculates the transmission of adverse effects of stress-exposure from parents to their children. It can be noted as epigenetic mechanisms. 

On a psychological factor we have variables which correlates between the individual and their environment. When an individual is living in an environment where they feel they lack resources, negative factors such as anxiety, and depression can relate to stress over time. 

The social factors of stress can span as largely as family status (living alone or large family structure), education level, spiritual groups, economic status, and lifestyle. 

A negative effect of stress can range from headaches, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and even arthritis. Stress that continues to go unevaluated can become chronic, which can in turn effect the immune system. Having a suppressed immune system lacks the body’s ability to fight infections allowing a person to be ill more often than others. It can also trigger the predisposed illnesses such as some cancers. Chronic stress can also increase ones chances of heart attack, stroke, decrease reproductive system, as well as speed up the aging process (Sarafino & Smith, 2017).

Have a great week!



Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486 

3)  M.C     Re: Topic 3 DQ 1

As we have learned through the course material the biopsychosocial method is the view that health and illness somehow are the affected by the result of biological, psychological, and social factors in the life of individuals. Moreover, stress is the condition obtained through a person’s environmental dealings which lead the individual to acknowledge that something is way off between what needs to be done and his/her ability to do it. According to Chapter 3 The condition of stress has two components: physical, involving direct material or bodily challenge, and psycho-logical, involving how individuals perceive circumstances in their lives (Lovallo,2005). Furthermore, stressors can generate tension in the individual’s biological, psychological, and social systems.

In the biological aspects of stress, when looking at the physiological response to a stressor—or strain—it is called reactivity, which researchers measure by comparison against a baseline, or “resting,” level of arousal (Lovallo,2005). An example is when a person is involved in a near accident or a frightening situation. The immediate bodily reaction is rapid heart beats as well as trembling of the muscles. The body is then instantaneously aroused to defend itself. After the event ceased such arousal diminishes.

In the psychological system regarding stress a person can experience stress when taking a test. The student might not remember the answer that was right at the edge of the pencil, so to speak, but remembers it once the test finalizes. High levels of stress have the ability to affect a person’s memory and/or attention. Another stressor that is deemed psychological is noise level as it can be a huge distraction to someone taking working on an assignment or exam. Moreover, emotions also play a role in the psychological system as a stressor. Fear, sadness, depression, phobias, anger, and many more are common factors that ignite stress in an individual depending on the circumstance or experience.

Finally, social stressors can also contribute to anxiety in a biopsychosocial model. When faced with adversity due to unforeseen events or possibly circumstances that are not in the person’s control, either a social connection with others can arise for a positive experience or a social distancing may form which can lead to stress. Individuals can become hostile towards others, without showing any sympathy or regards to fellow humans. Insensitivity towards others can form as a result of such stressful situations that can not be controlled. An egotistical character may form brought by stress rendering the individual with a lack of sensitivity for the needs of others.


4) T.A    Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

Stress plays a major role in life. It can alter our moods, behaviors, sense of well-being, as well as our over-all health. Although stress is a continuous throughout our lives, how we learn to handle stress can ultimately depend on how it effects us long-term. Psychosocial stressors can be correlated with disease. Depending on factors such as nature, the number of times the occurrences happen, biological vulnerabilities, resources available, and how one has learned to cope can depend on the outcome and severity. 

Mammals in general are designed with coping responses to stress. There is the integrated coping response, allowing mammals to have a fight-or-flight mode, which involves our central nervous system. An example of this would be if you have ever had someone come up from behind you secretly, you decide to either run away as fast as you can, or you physically try to protect yourself. There is also the automatic vigilance response, which involves the sympathetic nervous system. This response is referred to as “situational stereotypy (Larsen, 2004). A great example is when Captain Lewis was almost attacked by a bear during the Lewis and Clark expedition. Once he was almost killed by the bear, every animal he came across posed the same threat to him as the bear did, or at least in his mind they did (Larsen, 2004). An individual’s genetic inheritance has a role in determining the differences in response stereotypy, but there is also a correlation between neonatal experiences and the long-term effects in cognitive-emotional responses (Schneiderman, Ironson, & Siegel, 2005). A study performed with female rats showed when mother rats were nurturing to their off-spring, their offspring had increase levels of serotonin activity, which was the opposite for the off-spring of the non-nurturing mothers. Serotonin levels created higher numbers of glucocorticoid receptors, which in turn diminished the level of anxiety the rats had as adults (Schneiderman, Ironson, & Siegel, 2005). Knowing this information can help us understand why individuals who have good stress responses, and are over-all healthy tend to have less ailments due to stress. On the contrary, those who feel under threat persistently, are older, and unhealthy can have severe chronic health problems. 

On a psychological perspective, we look at exposure to violence, abuse, family unit (happily married, constant conflict, divorced), attachment disorders, and level of overall intimacy (Schneiderman, Ironson, & Siegel, 2005). The stress a child lives with during abuse is long-term. They often develop personality disorders, poor school performance, and a negative view towards learning. When a child is in a broken home due to divorce, they can experience anxiety, and anti-social disorders. Those who grow up with a lack of support also have a more difficult time engaging with others and having friends, as well as adapting to a sense of helplessness. people in general who live in an unstable environment or in war zones are also susceptible to post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as psychological morbidity. Living under intense and chronic stressors increases the risk of early death, lower immune systems, and changes within the central nervous system (Schneiderman, Ironson, & Siegel, 2005). 

Looking at the psychosocial perspective, sex plays a moderate difference. Men who are categorized in the lower socioeconomic  bracket have the worst health outcomes. They are also at the highest risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A man’s job plays a vital role in this determinant. The stress a man endures during his job can increase hypertension. Also, a male is more likely to smoke, drink and be less active in life. A male is also more likely than a female to engage in risky behaviors to increase risk of accidents. My personal opinion is we are shifting in regards to men having more stress than women as a whole. Years ago, men were the ones who left the home to work while the mother’s job was the raise the children. In today’s modern world, mother’s are now faced with working an outside job, while still having the stress of taking care of household chores and raising the children. Regardless, when a person loses a job it can be very stressful. The longer a person goes without a job can create health problems as simple as a cold to chronic health illnesses due to lower immune systems. A heightened psychosocial factor we can examine is children and their schools. A school is a place where children go to learn how to socialize and engage in positive activities. The increase in school shootings have caused students stress over unsafe learning environments (Schneiderman, Ironson, & Siegel, 2005). Not to mention the role of the Covid epidemic, disallowing children to communicate and engage in daily activities with their peers. It will be interesting to see how the current pandemic effects this generation in the future.

Have a great day!


Larsen, R. J. (2004, November). Emotion and cognition: The case of automatic vigilance. Psychological Science Agenda. 

Schneiderman, N., Ironson, G., & Siegel, S. D. (2005). Stress and health: psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants. Annual review of clinical psychology, 1, 607–628. 

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