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  1. Discuss the emergence of the Baroque art  in the context of various developments in politics, religion, and science. Why did some of these development present challenges to the ruling Church?
  2. Discuss various strategies developed by Baroque architects to deal with the challenges presented by the above developments.
  3. Explain the role of the Jesuit order in the evolution of the 17th century art and architecture. Give examples.
  4. How do you understand the term such as “Skepticism” as applied to 17th century’s philosophy? Also, explain why the 17th century development of Western-European philosophy is often described as a “shift from ontology to epistemology.”
  5. How can the concept such as “Skepticism” help explain the architecture of the Baroque period?
  6. Discuss the essence of the “Debate between the Ancients and the Moderns.”
  7. Why did “the Ancients” think that the use of double columns was not acceptable?
  8. How did Claude Perrault justify his belief that the use of double-columns was acceptable?
  9. Explain the notion of “natural beauty” vs. “customary beauty” as applies to the “Debate between the Ancients and the Moderns.”
  10. Describe the difference between “the Ancients” and “the Moderns” in terms of the attitude they had toward the relationship between the theory and practice.
  11. Explain the term such as “the society of the spectacle.” What is the essence of Guy Debord’s critique of the “the society of the spectacle.”
  12. Explain the shift away from mathematics that took place in Western-European architectural theory in the seventeenth century in the context of Guy Debord’s critique of the “the society of the spectacle.”
  13. Explain the term such as “the Architectural Grand Tour.”
  14. Describe the paradigm shift (a significant change in the ways the entire society interprets the natural and the social laws that govern their life) that produced a phenomenon such as “the Architectural Grand Tour.”
  15. Explain the shifts in 18th century philosophy of knowledge and society that prompted the interest towards “the primitive.”
  16. Describe the significance of eighteenth century’s voyages to Greece, such as those by Revett and Stuart, and Julien-David Le Roy.
  17. What was Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s major contribution to art history?
  18. How did Johann Joachim Winckelmann come to his conclusion that the ancient Roman art was inferior to the ancient Greek art?
  19. How do you interpret Winckelmann’s phrase “Noble simplicity and quiet grandeur?”
  20. Describe how the “search for origins” that emerged in the eighteenth century is related to the value our culture accords to the “originality” of a piece of art.
  21. Discuss how the tradition of architectural travels affected architectural education
  22. Why did Peter Eisenman argue that his architectural tour with Colin Rowe was “the last grand tour?”