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# Please post 2 or more peer responses In the response posts, remember to demonstrate you have read and understood the student’s post by taking their discussion

Please post 2 or more peer responses

In the response posts, remember to demonstrate you have read and understood the student’s post by taking their discussion to the next level through your responses to the following:

· Look up the nutrition label for one of your peer’s food. Include this label in the post.

· Compare the recommended serving size to real-world serving size. Consider that most people think of a candy bar as one portion, but per the nutrition label is actually two servings.

· Why would the food industry want to make the serving size smaller?

Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.

Estimated time to complete: 2 hours

A kilocalorie is the scientific term used to measure energy. It refers to the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree celsius. There are two types of calories, “small” calories (cal) and “large” calories (Cal). A kilocalorie (kcal) is the same as one large calorie, equivalent to 1,000 small calories. Kilocalories are the most common calories that are seen on food labels and in nutrition and exercise recommendations. (Ferraro, 2023) In order to convert the measurement of kilocalories consumed to a measurement of joules, I multiplied the energy by the following conversion ratio: joules = kilocalories x 4,184

Here is a list of some foods I consume regularly:
Including their recommended serving size & associated Calorie count
My consumption size
& The food’s conversion from kilocalorie to Joule

· Bubbl’r Antioxidant Sparkling Water

· Recommended serving size: 1 can, 5 Calories

· My consumption: 1 can = 5 kilocalories

· Kilocalories (5 kcal) → Joules (
20,920 J)

·  Nature Valley Crunch Oats ‘N Dark Chocolate Granola Bars

·

· Recommended serving size: 2 bars/1 packet, 200 Calories

· My consumption: 1 packet = 200 kilocalories

· Kilocalories (200 kcal) → Joules (
836,800 J)

· Tombstone Pizza

· Recommended serving size: ¼ pizza, 340 Calories

· My consumption: ½ pizza = 680 kilocalories

· Kilocalories (680 kcal) → Joules (
2,845,120 J)

· Birds Eye Steamfresh Veggies (Broccoli Florets)

· Recommended serving size: 1 ⅓ cup, 30 Calories

· My consumption: 2 servings = 60 kilocalories

· Kilocalories (60 kcal) → Joules (
251,040 J)

· Sabra Hummus – Roasted Pine Nut

· Recommended serving size: 2 tbsp, 80 Calories

· My consumption: 4 tbsp or ¼ cup of hummus = 160 kilocalories

· Kilocalories (160 kcal) → Joules (
669,440 J)

Because a kilocalorie is a term used to measure energy and specifically refers to the heat required to increase the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree celsius, food scientists determine the number of calories per serving by burning the food. This method of measuring calories is called direct calorimetry. In using this method, food is placed in an insulated, oxygen-filled chamber called a bomb calorimeter which is surrounded by water. The food sample inside is burned completely. As the burning heats the water, the temperature is measured and thus indicates the number of calories in the food. For example, if the water temperature increases by 10 degrees, the food then contains 10 calories. (Merck & Co, 2024)

The body uses the chemical potential energy obtained from foods to convert it into mechanical energy for locomotion, thermal energy, and retains some chemical potential energy for storage. Surprisingly, however, our body is not 100% efficient at converting food energy into mechanical output, “wasting” about ¾ of the energy consumed. Much of that lost energy leaves the body as carbon dioxide or water vapor (H2O), being breathed out or excreted in waste. Unlike the common term of “burning” these calories, the body actually uses enzymes instead of heat to break down these calories. In doing so, we conserve excess energy that would be lost in heat and avoid damaging tissues with excessive internal temperatures. The enzymes that the body uses act as catalysts to improve the speed and optimize the efficiency of chemical reactions that break down the molecules in our body into smaller and smaller units. Eventually, as the bonds break that hold these molecules together, they release chemical potential energy which is then converted to work and exhaust heat. (Davis, 2020)

Davis, L. (2020, April 16).
The Energetic Functions of the Body. LibreTexts Physics.

Ferraro, K. (2023, August 9).
How to Calculate Kilocalories. Livestrong.

Merck & Co (2024, May 19).
How Are Calories in Foods Measured? Merck Manual: Consumer Version.

Sexton, J. (2022, May 19).
Kilocalories to Joules Converter. Inch Calculator.

Edited by

Caitlin Monroe
on Feb 3 at 2:59pm

5 Foods I typically eat in a day and their calorie and joule content:

Formula for calories to joules: 1 cal = 4.184 joules

Number of calories x 4.184 joules/1 calorie = # of joules

1. Jimmy Dean Breakfast Bowl- Loaded Potato 360 calories = 1506 joules

2. California Roll, 8 pieces- 268 calories = 1,121 joules

3. Ghost Protein (Cereal and Milk) protein powder- 180 calories (added in 50 calories of almond milk to mix it in) = 753 joules

4. Amy’s chinese noodles and vegetables frozen meal = 420 calories = 1,757 joules

5. Rocky Road Ice cream – 300 calories = 1,255 joules

Total calorie intake: 1528

Total Joules: 6393

How do food scientists determine calorie content that is reported on food labels?

“Food labels contain the number of calories per serving. But how is this number determined? The answer is surprisingly simple: The food is burned. A sample of the food is placed in an insulated, oxygen-filled chamber that is surrounded by water. This chamber is called a bomb calorimeter. The sample is burned completely. The heat from the burning increases the temperature of the water, which is measured and which indicates the number of calories in the food. For example, if water temperature increases by 20 degrees, the food contains 20 calories. This method of measuring calories is called direct calorimetry” (Table).

How does your body use this energy? And is my body able to use all this energy?

“The normal uses energy at a standard rate when lying down with an empty stomach.   The rate is called the basal metabolism and for a 70 kg man this is about 7000kJ per 24 hours. A person also consumes energy (leisure joules) for everyday activities not associated with work rate required to do normal tasks.    The average leisure joules for a man is about 2400kJ per day. ( A man not engaged any physical activity other than light leisure activities would use about 9400kJ )” (Roy Med).

If the average joules for a man is 7000kJ per 24 hours, that equates to 1673 calories per day. Women typically as a rule burn less calories on average than men so let’s say on average 1500 a day for women. I work out as well typically burning 200-500 more calories than my average 1500 as a woman. So let’s add 300 on average, extra calories for working out, making my calorie count 1800. If you total up all of the calories of the five foods I have listed it is: 1528 calories, or 6393 Joules. So on average, yes my body is able to use all this energy.

My body uses this energy in many ways, starting from the essential functions such as cell growth and repair, breathing, transporting nutrients in the blood, etc. But also, energy is used up in the form of work, which includes but is not limited to cleaning, walking, lifting, exercising, and generally moving the body in any form or fashion (Health Engine).

Works Cited

Energy expenditure: How the body burns calories. HealthEngine Blog. (2019, March 21).

to an external site.

Human work and Energy Notes – Roy Mech. (n.d.).

to an external site.

Table: How are calories in foods measured?. Merck Manuals Consumer Version. (n.d.).

#:~:text=A%20sample%20of%20the%20food,of%20calories%20in%20the%20foodLinks to an external site.

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