Re: Topic 2 DQ 2
Stroke (Cerebrovascular accident)
Stroke is a term used to describe the cessation of blood supply to an area of the brain due to ruptured blood vessels or thrombus in the blood vessels. This results in loss of brain function or diminished brain function in that area. It can either be a hemorrhagic stroke or an ischemic stroke. With a hemorrhagic stroke, the blood vessels rupture and disrupt the blood supply to the area of the brain affected. However, with ischemic stroke, there is a thrombus in the blood vessels that cuts the blood supply to areas of the brain affected leading to the death of brain cells (Grand Canyon University, 2018). The characteristics findings for stroke include facial drooping, slurred speech, weakness in one arm and/ or leg. The factors contributing to stroke include:
- Uncontrolled high blood pressure: this increases the pressure in the blood vessels, especially the blood vessels in the brain, and this could lead to rupture of the blood vessels, resulting in a stroke.
- High cholesterol: the high cholesterol in the blood vessels forms plaques that occlude the blood vessels in the brain causing ischemia and stroke.
- Diabetes: Diabetes increases the level of glucose in the bloodstream and this forms plaques in the blood vessels leading to occlusion and stroke.
- Smoking: smoking tends to form plaques in the blood which can result in a stroke.
- Atrial fibrillation: this can result in a buildup of blood clots in the blood vessels thus causing a stroke.
A stroke usually impacts the lives of patients and family, as they are unable to perform activities of daily living and other family responsibilities. Nurses have a role to play in helping patients and their family members by providing resources that include community resources, spiritual, and psychological resources to enable the patient and family to cope during the process. The nurse can also encourage patients and their family members to participate in rehabilitation sessions that may include speech therapy, physical therapy, and occupational therapy to improve patient’s compliance with the treatment plan. It is also important that the nurse encourage the patient to monitor predisposing factors to stroke. The nurse should also provide necessary education that will provide adequate knowledge to the patients. The nurse should:
Educate the patient on eating a heart-healthy diet to manage high blood pressure.
Educate the patient on eating a diet low in cholesterol to manage hyperlipidemia.
Educate on the importance of smoking cessation.
Educate on the importance of regular exercise
Educate on the importance of maintaining a healthy weight.
Flint Rehab. (2018). What causes a stroke? Understanding the leading factors. https://www.flintrehab.com/what-causes-a-stroke/
Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Pathophysiology: Clinical applications for client health.
1 postsRe: Topic 2 DQ 2
Common characteristic findings for a stroke include numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body, confusion, trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech, trouble seeing in one or both eyes, trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, or lack of coordination, and severe headache with no known cause. The long-lasting effects of a stroke depends on rapid recognition and quick interventions. Quick intervention is needed with a stroke, preferably within 3 hours of the first symptoms. Acute care of a stroke includes stabilization and aggressive treatment if indicated. Once patient is stabilized then the patient will begin supportive services such as physical, occupational, and speech therapies to help with restoration of function to any areas of deficit. (Falkner & Green, 2018). When a patient has a stroke, it does not just affect the patient, it affects the whole family. A stroke is something that can leave a person severely disabled physically and cognitively depending on the severity. The patient may no longer be able to take care of themselves and may no longer be able to dependently feed, dress, or perform their activities of daily living alone, and may no longer be able to provide for their family. Stroke patients often develop depression and recovery from stroke requires physical, social, and emotional aspects of life. The nurse’s role in supporting patient’s psychological and emotional needs is to offer support by listening, using touch, being present, using silence when appropriate, offering encouragement and observing the patient for signs of distress. (Falkner & Green, 2018). An example of this is when a patient is unable to communicate then the nurse should do his/her best to try to comfort the patient, and try to address all of the patient’s possible needs and to just be there for him/her.
Falkner, A., & Green, S. Z. (2018). Pathophysiology clinical applications for client health: Neurological, Perceptual, and Cognitive Complexities. Retrieved March 15, 2021, from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/2